Pitfalls in session management

May 2017 · 4 minute read

This is a quick post that talks about the usage of sessions in web applications. Sessions is not a new topic for those who’ve used the basic web applications that require a login. Sessions are necessary to overcome the stateless nature of HTTP. They do this by utilising the cookie mechanism of most modern web browsers.

A Sessions Analogy

In simple terms, a session is used to identify and resume conversation with the service where one left off previously. Anecdotally, imagine you went to a bank to fill out a withdrawal form. You fill the form halfway only to be told by the teller that you’ve forgotten to include a copy of your proof of identity. So you go back and return later to complete the withdrawal. Now, there are a few ways to do this:

  1. You take your form with you and return with the proof of identity
  2. You let the teller keep the incomplete form and return with the proof of identity
  3. The teller keeps your incomplete form and gives you a token so he can retrieve the form from his filer later

Granted, this is a little contrived. But in cases 1. and 2. there is potential for data loss (you or the teller loses the form). And since we all hate filling forms, the token approach is better suited as the form is kept in (presumably) safekeeping.

Session storage

In scenario 1. the client carrying the form data back is problematic because

  1. There is too much data to carry. Browsers restrict 4kB of data in cookies.
  2. The form data could be lost. *Groans* - fill your form again
  3. The data could be manipulated by a malicous third party

So this option of storage is not viable and insecure for the most part.

In scenario 2. if the teller was a different individual, there is going to be a lot of scurrying about trying to locate your form. In a web application there is no guarantee that the request is served by the same node each time. We can simply discount this method as infeasible.

In scenario 3. the token is a simple key based mechanism to perform a look up in the filer storage. You could go to a different teller and they would still be able to locate your form. And you don’t have to carry a ton of data back with you. Even within a client-server situation this is the favoured approach.


I was going through the gorilla sessions pkg and was left confused by the default FilesystemStore and memory based CookieStore. Both of these are cookie driven implementations of session storage. A look at the interface and examples on the gorilla website would lead you into saving your form data (encoded though) as part of the cookie sent back to the client. Here’s the session save setting the cookie in the response.

// Save adds a single session to the response.
func (s *CookieStore) Save(r *http.Request, w http.ResponseWriter,
    session *Session) error {
    // Saves session and values
    encoded, err := securecookie.EncodeMulti(session.Name(), session.Values,
    if err != nil {
        return err
    http.SetCookie(w, NewCookie(session.Name(), encoded, session.Options))
    return nil

As you can see the session.Values corresponds to the form data saved if you follow the examples. This leads to abuse of session management in frameworks in any language.

However, the redis and couchdb implementations of the gorilla sessions do not have this issue. The redis implementation for instance only saves the session.ID in the cookie for later lookup in redis

// Save adds a single session to the response.
func (s *RediStore) Save(r *http.Request, w http.ResponseWriter, session *sessions.Session) error {
    // Marked for deletion.
    if session.Options.MaxAge < 0 {
        if err := s.delete(session); err != nil {
            return err
        http.SetCookie(w, sessions.NewCookie(session.Name(), "", session.Options))
    } else {
        // Build an alphanumeric key for the redis store.
        if session.ID == "" {
            session.ID = strings.TrimRight(base32.StdEncoding.EncodeToString(securecookie.GenerateRandomKey(32)), "=")
        if err := s.save(session); err != nil {
            return err
        // Only saves session.ID
        encoded, err := securecookie.EncodeMulti(session.Name(), session.ID, s.Codecs...)
        if err != nil {
            return err
        http.SetCookie(w, sessions.NewCookie(session.Name(), encoded, session.Options))
    return nil

I’m not entirely sure of the intent of the Gorilla authors why the default implementations differ this way though. I must reach out to them.


One topic I didn’t touch upon is that of security. You will notice that most sessions are encrypted and are validated before use. In the teller scenario, if we flip the roles there is no guarantee that the data has not been tampered with. This is why the token and the data need to be secured in all cases. Luckily for us the Gorilla toolkit provides the securecookie implementation that does this with only a few lines of code.